Villagers of South Unguja Pete acquiring knowledge about the fight against AIDS through Jihadhari magazine released by Zanzibar AIDS Commission
Children at ZAPHA+
ZAC Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator Mr. Ali Kimwaga in one of the M&E meeting
Theatre for Social Development (THESODE) on the stage
Group Picture during World AIDS day climax 2015
Participants attended National Youth Forum in Zanzibar
Group Picture during World AIDS day climax, 1 December 2016
Waziri wa Nchi Ofisi ya Makamu wa Pili wa Rais Mhe. Mohamed Aboud Mohamed akizungumza na Watendaji wa Wizara yake ikiwemo Tume ya UKIMWI ambayo imehamishiwa Wizara hiyo.

ZAC Chairperson

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Key Populations (KP) in Simulated Employment Contexts of Zanzibar in Relation to Human Resource Development


Kimwaga Muhiddin Ali
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Norhasni Zainal Abiddin (Corresponding Author)
Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Sihaba Saadat
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Shaaban Haji 
Zanzibar Integrated HIV TB and Leprosy (ZIHTLP) 
Ministry of Health Zanzibar

Biubwa S Juma
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Mohammed Said 
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Background: Human Resource Development (HRD)is a process of developing and unleashing human expertise through organizational development and personnel training and other learning activities. It focuses on developing human potential in organizations and communities. Among other key population respondents, there are a few of them are employees in organizations. Key populations including sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who inject drug (PWID)'s behavior made them at the highest risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. Yet they have the least access to employment opportunities and in-come generating activities. This is due to the fact that, their behaviors are often categorized as illegal, stigmatized and even criminalized in most of East African Countries. These employees might have certain capabilities and expertise that could benefits the organizations. Elements of HRD interventions could be applied to this small group of key populations in order to develop their expertise.Appropriate HRD provides unlimited benefits to the organization such as HRD makes people more competent. HRD also develops new skill, knowledge and attitude of the people in the organization.

Methods: This is a descriptive type of assessment, and a purposive sampling of 278 KPs were involved. In-depth interviews, key informant interviews, observations and focus group discussions were deployed using structured tools. Data collectors were trained, and generated data were posted using Microsoft excel software for cleaning and analyzed using Epi-info version 7 software. 

Results: Around 38% of the assessed KPs were unemployed. Most of the unemployed KPs were in the age group category between 25-43 years. In addition, 33.5% of the assessed KPs were self-employed while only 6% of the assessed KPs were employed by the public sector. Only 2.7% of the KPs reported to be working with Civil Society Organizations (CSO). Additional assessment results revealed that majority of MSM [40%; n=20/50] were self-employed compared 42.9% [n=39/91] and 12.3% [n=8/65] of PWID and sex workers respectively. Among the three KPs, high proportion of MSMs were employed in the public sector [16%] when compared 2.2% of PWID and 1.54% of SW respectively. Also noted was the high unemployment rate among PWID [46.2%], followed by SW [37%] and MSM [18%] respectively. 

Conclusions and Recommendations: Zanzibar AIDS Commission in collaboration with other public and private sectors will continue to advocate for the meaningful involvement of KPs in the fight against stigma and improve access to socio- economic opportunities to KPs. Human resource development is a series of organized activities, conducted within a specialized time and designed to produce behavioural changes.The core of the concept of HRD is that of development of human beings and collaboration amongst people working in the organization.Therefore implementation of HRD intervention to the appropriate group among Key Populations can unleash and develop their capabilities and also help to create the efficiency culture in the organization which leads to greater organizational effectiveness.

Key Words: Key populations, HIV, employment, human resource development