Villagers of South Unguja Pete acquiring knowledge about the fight against AIDS through Jihadhari magazine released by Zanzibar AIDS Commission
Children at ZAPHA+
ZAC Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator Mr. Ali Kimwaga in one of the M&E meeting
Theatre for Social Development (THESODE) on the stage
Group Picture during World AIDS day climax 2015
Participants attended National Youth Forum in Zanzibar
Group Picture during World AIDS day climax, 1 December 2016
Waziri wa Nchi Ofisi ya Makamu wa Pili wa Rais Mhe. Mohamed Aboud Mohamed akizungumza na Watendaji wa Wizara yake ikiwemo Tume ya UKIMWI ambayo imehamishiwa Wizara hiyo.

ZAC Chairperson

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Implementation of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) System to Track Progress in Key Populations (KPs) Targeted Interventions



Kimwaga Muhiddin Ali
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

1Norhasni Zainal Abiddin (Corresponding Author)
Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Biubwa S Juma
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Shaaban Haji 
Zanzibar Integrated HIV TB and Leprosy (ZIHTLP) 
Ministry of Health Zanzibar

Mohammed Said 
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Sihaba Saadat
Zanzibar Aids Commission
Zanzibar, Tanzania

Issues: Zanzibar has concentrated type of HIV epidemic, and based on this fact, the second generation of Zanzibar National Multi-sectoral HIV&AIDS Strategic Plan II (2011-2016) represents a significant programmatic shift that focuses more on Key Populations (KPs). The HIV prevalence is reported at 11.3% Injecting Drug Users, 19.3% Sex Workers and 2.6% Men Having sex with Men. However, the general population has HIV prevalence of 1%. An assessment of Zanzibar Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) system which was aimed at measuring the extent to which the national HIV M&E system responds to the programmatic shift was conducted in 2014. The assessment used the 12 components model (the M&E Systems Strengthening Tool). Inadequate funding, knowledge and M&E skills; un-harmonized data collection tools for the KP’s targeted interventions and the fact that, surveillance system targeting key populations is not routinely done affect the operationalization of M&E system. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) helps quantify the attainment of program goals and sub-goals. M&E arethe elements under Human Resource Development which should be includedin any programs development.A monitoring and an evaluation helps to analyze whether the project worked, how have resources been spent and should the project continue. Whereas an evaluation can helps us to understand the project's strengths and weaknesses, the implementation problems and the good practice issues. Therefore, M&E is crucial in any programs or projectsthat have been conducted.

Methods: This is a descriptive type of assessment, and a purposive sampling of 278 KPs were involved. In-depth interviews, key informant interviews, observations and focus group discussions were deployed using structured tools. The M&E Systems Strengthening Tool have been assessed. 

Results: It is fundamental to realign and decentralize the implementation of routine monitoring and surveillance system to track progress in KP’s targeted interventions. Human capacity for M&E; comprehensive and harmonized approaches used for operationalizing M&E system among the general population do not always apply to KPs. The KPs are hard to reach population and social stigma, homophobia, denial and the prevailing social and legal environment affect KPs involvement in M&E functions. The harmonized data collection tools and unique identifier could help in avoiding double counting, and ensure confidentiality, privacy and human rights among the groups of KPs. The M&E Systems Strengthening Tool and documentations have been improvised based on the research findings. 

Next Steps: Zanzibar AIDS Commission, Ministry of Health (ZIHTLP) and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) will continue to lead key stakeholders in realigning the M&E documentation, tools and approaches to support M&E work among KPs; strengthening institutional and human capital for M&E; and harmonizing data collection tools for reporting results of KP targeted interventions.

Key Words:  HIV, human resource development, key populations, monitoring, evaluation


1Corresponding Author:  Associate Professor Dato’ Dr. NorhasniZainalAbiddin. Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.